Reducing Spasticity in
Multiple Sclerosis Patients
by Heather Post |
What is Spasticity?
Spasticity refers to an increase in muscle tone that causes muscle stiffness or spasms (Sibley, 105). There are two types of spasticity prevalent in people with MS: phasic spasms and a sustained increase in muscle tone. Phasic spasms sub-categorize into two types of spasticity: flexor and extensor. In flexor spasticity, the hips and knees of the person bend forward, due to tightening of the hamstrings. In extensor spasticity, the legs of the patient cross over at the ankles or lock together, with the hips and knees remaining rigid (http://www.nmss.org/msinfo/cmsi/spasticity.html).
Spasms also occur less frequently in the arms, backs, and necks of people with MS. Both types of spasticity debilitate patients and lead to difficulties in performing daily tasks. Phasic spasms disrupt the balance of the patient and can cause severe pain. Steady increases in muscle tone inhibits ambulatory abilities, forcing patients to rely on walkers and wheelchairs for transportation (Sibley, 106).
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Cannabis Medical Dictionary by CannabisMD.net - Muscle Spasms |
Muscle Spasms—sudden, involuntary movements or convulsive muscular contractions—may affect many areas of the body and may be caused by numerous diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and other forms of sclerosis (hardening of tissue or the nervous system), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), cerebral palsy, atopic neurodermititis (chronic hardening of the skin), paraplegia, quadriplegia, cranial and spinal nerve injuries, and other neurological impairments such as Tourette’s Syndrome and symptoms caused by stroke. In addition, asthma is in part caused by spasms of muscle coating the smaller bronchi.[i]
In several human and animal studies, natural marijuana and synthetic delta-9 THC have each been found to relieve a broad range of muscle spasms.[ii] [iii] One 1990 double-blind trial comparing THC with codeine showed that both had an analgesic effect in comparison with a placebo, but, “only delta-9 THC showed a significant beneficial effect on spasticity.”[iv] Dozens of studies on human subjects have indicated that cannabis may be useful in treating various types of spastic conditions,[v] [vi] including cases where conventional treatments have failed.[vii]
Visit - http://www.cannabismd.net/muscle-spasms/
Recent Research on Medical Marijuana, by NORML - the National
| Medical Conditions;
Tourette's Syndrome, plus.
Emerging Clinical Applications For Cannabis & Cannabinoids
A Review of the Recent Scientific Literature, 2000 — 2008; and more!
Visit - http://norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7002
420LAWYER - Medical Marijuana Legal Services
For a list of California doctors who recommend medical cannabis, please visit: .... afforded legal protection under this act: Spasms or wasting syndrome; ...
BUSINESS LAW SECTION, CRIMINAL LAW SECTION, State Medical Marijuana Laws,
Marijuana vs. Hemp: Myth vs. Reality
and more ...
Visit - http://420lawyer.com/State_Laws.html
States that Support Medical Freedom, by Medical-Freedom.com |
Requires the court to consider a defendant's use of medical cannabis to be a ... Medical conditions affording legal protection: Spasms or wasting syndrome ...
Below, you will find a brief summary of state laws and the dates they where put into effect. Sadly, there are only twelve states that have laws enacted to date.
NOTE: The State of Maryland is added to this list (but not as one of the twelve) because they have "Affirmative Defense"; although technically there is no actual law, they do show support for Medical Freedom on a very small level. This is better than taking no position at all. At least they address it in some way, unlike all other remaining States across America.
Visit - http://medical-freedom.com/history/index.html
State Medical Marijuana Laws, by ProCon.org |
ProCon.org is a 501 (c)(3) nonprofit public charity that has no government affiliations of any kind.
The purpose is educational.
They do not express opinions on research projects ("issue sites"), and believe that most people care about their community, their state and their country, have common sense and good judgment and can make better decisions if the large volume of data and rhetoric on an issue is reduced to a fairly and reasonably crafted pro-con presentation.
I. Thirteen states have enacted laws that legalized medical marijuana, and more.
Visit - http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/viewresource.asp?resourceID=881
WeedBay.Net - 1000 types of marijuana strains | Medical Marijuana Card | Medical Marijuana NEWS | medical marijuana coop club dispensary map ...
Cannabis Card States | Medical Marjiuana | WHat I Need For Medcial Marijuana | State By State medical marijuana Summary | Marijuana Card Info | What States medical Marijuana | Cannabis on the Web. Medical Marijuana Strain Guide ... to a medical condition that produces Spasms, persistent muscle spasms ...
Visit - http://www.weedbay.net/articles.php?action=show&showarticle=508
CANNABIS - A CENTURY OF MEDICAL USES, by THE
ANTIQUE CANNABIS BOOK |
CANNABIS - 1840-1940 ... Although Medical Cannabis had been in use for ... Jan 11, 1873 pp 33 "Lead Colic, with Marked Lead Spasms" ... Chapter 11 ...
With Over 600 Pre-1937 Medical Cannabis Products Documented;---a Great Resource book for the Antique Cannabis Collector |
From Paracelsus to World War II:
Although Medical Cannabis had been in use for thousands of years before the creation of Western Medicine, most modern day antique Cannabis collectors seem to have little interest in ancient Egyptian Jars, or Assyrian Clay tablets.
This chapter therefore, limits itself solely to those uses that [established] Western Medicine, made of it, and then ONLY if mentioned in contemporary and reputable Medical Journals.
Visit - http://antiquecannabisbook.com/chap11/MedUses.htm
Lycaeum > Leda > Documents > Medical Marijuana References, by The Lycaeum Entheogen Database (Leda) |
Petro DJ, Ellenberger C Jr. "Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol." J Clin Pharmacol 1981 Aug-Sep;21(8-9 Suppl):413S-416S.
For the group, 10 mg THC significantly reduced spasticity by clinical measurement (P less than 0.01). Quadriceps EMG interference pattern was reduced in those four patients with primarily extensor spasticity. THC was administered to eight other patients with spasticity and other CNS lesions. Responses varied, but benefit was seen in three of three patients with "tonic spasms." No benefit was noted in patients with cerebellar disease.
Spasticity is a common neurologic condition in patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke, cerebral palsy or an injured spinal cord. Animal studies suggest that THC has an inhibitory effect on polysynaptic reflexes. Some spastic patients claim improvement after inhaling cannabis. We tested muscle tone, reflexes, strength and performed EMGs before and after double-blinded oral administration of either 10 or 5 mg THC or placebo. The blinded examiner correctly identified the trials in which the patients received THC in seven of nine cases.
Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW. "Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis." Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse 1987;7(1):39-50.
Subjective ratings of spasticity and side effects were completed and semiquantitative neurological examinations were performed. At doses greater than 7.5 mg there was significant improvement in patient ratings of spasticity compared to placebo. These positive findings in a treatment failure population suggest a role for THC in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
Marijuana is reported to decrease spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. This is a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover clinical trial of delta-9-THC in 13 subjects with clinical multiple sclerosis and spasticity. Subjects received escalating doses of THC in the range of 2.5-15 mg., five days of THC and five days of placebo in randomized order, divided by a two-day washout period.
The Lycaeum Entheogen Database (Leda) was created to organize the complex and ever-expanding web of entheogen information. Leda picks up where our old drug archives left off.
The intent is to absorb all available entheogenic knowledge, cross-reference it for you, and make it browseable through an intuitive interface.
Visit - http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=12894
Multiple Sclerosis and medical marijuana, by The Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana (WAMM) |
Many of the witnesses for that report shared the British Medical ... Among them, nearly three quarters said that cannabis mitigated their spasms, ... An estimated 350,000 people in the United States are living with multiple sclerosis (MS), a debilitating and sometimes fatal disorder of the central nervous system. MS is the most common debilitating neurologic disease of young people, often appearing between the ages of 20 and 40, affecting more women than men. Symptoms vary considerably from person to person; however, one frequently noted concomitant is spasticity, which causes pain, spasms, loss of function and difficulties in nursing care.
MS exacerbations appear to be caused by abnormal immune activity that causes inflammation and the destruction of myelin (the protective covering of nerve fibers) in the brain or spinal cord. MS most frequently presents at onset as a relapsing and remitting disorder, where symptoms come and go. Current treatment of MS is primarily symptomatic, focusing on such problems as spasticity, pain, fatigue, bladder problems and depression.
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Spinal Cord Injury and Disease by Medical Marijuana Information Resource Centre | Spinal cord injury and disease often result in loss of motion (e.g., paraplegia and quadriplegia), neuropathic pain, muscle spasms, loss of bladder control, erectile dysfunction, and depression.
Paraplegia is a weakness or paralysis of muscles in the lower body caused by disease or injury in the middle or lower part of the spinal cord. If the injury is near the neck, the arms and legs both may be affected, and quadriplegia develops. The standards for pain and muscle spasms are opioids for the pain and baclofen (Lioresal®/Atrofen®) or diazepam (Valium®) and other drugs of this class for the muscle spasms.
About the Medical Marijuana Information Resource Centre
The Medical Marijuana Information Resource Centre has been established to:
Help guide patients who currently use cannabis for medical reasons to legally access cannabis, and
Provide health care professionals with an overview of current and relevant clinical information on the use of medical cannabis.
Click > here < for more.
Vaporizers and Medical Cannabis - Drug Policy Alliance |
Earleywine, Mitch, "Vaporizers and Medical Cannabis."
Prof. Mitch Earleywine is back with ammunition against the arguments that marijuana is not medicine because of the dangers of smoking it. Read on for details about Vaporizer use, and feel free to contribute your own thoughts and experiences in our Discusion Forum.
Smoked cannabis can alleviate pain as effectively as established analgesics like codeine. It lowers nausea and vomiting quickly at less than half the price of other medications. Many case studies and a few controlled experiments suggest that cannabis can decrease the uncontrollable muscle spasms associated with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Seizures also decrease in response to medical cannabis. It’s also non-toxic, with no cases of death by overdose. (Even aspirin can’t make that claim!)
Visit - http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/mitch3.cfm
Common Medical Uses for Cannabis (Marijuana), by The American Alliance For Medical Cannabis (AAMC) | dedicated to bringing patients, caregivers and volunteers the facts they need to make informed decisions about whether Cannabis is the right medicine for them, the laws surrounding Medicinal Marijuana in your area, political activism and even handy recipes and guides to growing your own nontoxic medicine.
Physicians, Cannabis Cooperatives and Dispensaries;
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Can Cannabis Help Multiple Sclerosis?
Can Cannabis Kill You?
Cancer Spasms and cannabinoids ...
And more! Visit - http://www.letfreedomgrow.com/index_se_cmu.htm
Medical Marijuana, Spasms and Vomiting by ONLINE POT - 5/23/01 |
1. What research has been done and what is known about the possible medical uses of marijuana?
There is a large body of clinical research on the use of cannabinoids for chemotherapy-related Spasms and vomiting. Most of this work was conducted during the early 1980s. The majority of reports deal with oral dronabinol rather than smoked marijuana. These studies demonstrated that dronabinol was superior to placebo in controlling Spasms and vomiting caused by chemotherapy that induces a moderate amount of emesis (Sallan et al. 1975).
Several studies compared oral dronabinol with prochlorperazine (Sallan et al. 1980). Mixed results were reported from these studies, but generally dronabinol was found equivalent.
Visit - http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/article43.htm
Medical Marijuana for Pain and Depression by Disabled World | Disabled World News covers all types of disability and health conditions, plus offers unbiased reviews of many new assistive devices and living aids currently available to the disabled, baby boomers, and senior members of the community worldwide.
Marijuana is one of the most beneficial and therapeutically active substances known to man.
Medical Cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic.
Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. Writings from ancient India confirm that its psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a variety of illnesses and ailments. These included a whole host of gastrointestinal disorders, insomnia, headaches and as a pain reliever frequently used in childbirth.
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Medimar Medical Cannabis Consultants & Confirmations -
Welcome to our legal marijuana site |
California's Proposition 215 was approved on November 5, 1996. Ever since, state-level criminal penalties have been removed on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess a "written or oral recommendation" from their physician that he or she "would benefit from medical marijuana."
Conditions typically covered by the law include but are not limited to: arthritis; Spasms; cancer; chronic pain; HIV or AIDS; epilepsy; migraine; and multiple sclerosis.
They can help you get your recommendation for legal marijuana with no hassles! Offices in Downtown L.A., Orange County and San Diego.
Visit - http://www.medicalcannabisconsultants.com/
GENERAL INFORMATION by CMCR | Welcome to the University of California's Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research (CMCR). The purpose of the Center is to coordinate rigorous scientific studies to assess the safety and efficacy of cannabis and cannabis compounds for treating medical conditions.
The Center coordinates and supports cannabis research throughout the State of California. Research will focus on the potential medicinal benefits of cannabis for diseases and conditions as specified by the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine Report (1999) and by the Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana, National Institutes of Health (1997). The following diseases and conditions constitute areas of emphasis for current CMCR funding:
· Severe appetite suppression, weight loss, and Spasms due to HIV infection and other medical conditions
· Chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain
· Severe Spasms and vomiting associated with cancer and its treatment
· Severe muscle spasticity caused by diseases such as multiple sclerosis
Visit - http://www.cmcr.ucsd.edu/geninfo/index.htm
The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation (THCf) is a non-profit organization that helps qualified medical marijuana patients inform and empower themselves to become legally protected.
Under state law in Oregon, Washington, Colorado, California, Nevada, Montana, Hawaii and Michigan, the following conditions qualify for medical marijuana permits: Chronic Severe Pain, Glaucoma, Cancer, AIDS/HIV, Chronic Muscle Spasms, Multiple Sclerosis, GERD, Seizure Disorders, Crohn’s Disease, Chronic Spasms, Spasms, Asthma, IBS, Hepatitis C, Parkinson’s Disease, Arthritis, and many others. Marijuana is much safer, more effective and less costly than many medicinal alternatives currently in use.
The THCf host several clinics where doctors help patients obtain a permit for medical marijuana. Physicians are fully licensed, experienced, well informed and compassionate. Staff explains each state’s unique program and helps patients locate community resources so they can best benefit from their state’s medical cannabis law.
Visit - http://www.hemp.org/medical-cannabis.php
Americans for Safe Access (ASA) |
We recognize that information about using cannabis as medicine has been difficult to obtain. The federal prohibition on cannabis has meant that modern clinical research has been limited, to the detriment of medical science and the wellness of patients. But the documented history of the safe, medical use of cannabis dates to 2700 B.C. Cannabis was part of the American pharmacopoeia until 1942 and is currently available by prescription in the Netherlands and Canada.
Testimonials from both doctors and patients reveal valuable information on the use of cannabis therapies, and supporting statements from professional health organizations and leading medical journals support its legitimacy as a medicine. In the last few years, clinical trials in Great Britain, Canada, Spain, Israel, and elsewhere have shown great promise for new medical applications.
Visit - http://www.safeaccessnow.org/article.php?id=4558
CANNABIS AND MOVEMENT DISORDERS, by Americans for Safe Access (ASA) |
Movement disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, which are sometimes interlinked, are among the many conditions that cannabis is particularly well suited to treat.
The therapeutic use of cannabis for treating muscle problems and movement disorders has been known to western medicine for nearly two centuries. In reference to the plant's muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant properties, in 1839 Dr. William B. O'Shaughnessy wrote that doctors had "gained an anti-convulsive remedy of the greatest value."12 In 1890 Dr. J. Russell Reynolds, physician to Queen Victoria, noted in an article in The Lancet that for "organic disease of a gross character in the nervous centers . . . India hemp (cannabis) is the most useful agent with which I am acquainted."13
Visit - http://www.safeaccessnow.org/article.php?id=4562
iMedicalCannabis.org | is an educational and resource platform built to empower patients, families, and caregivers with the information and resources needed for Safe Access to medical cannabis.
Visit - http://imedicalcannabis.org/
Medical cannabis | Canna Cafe (blog) -
Medical cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician ... reported significant or total relief from Spasms and vomiting. ...
Medical cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic.
There are many studies regarding the use of cannabis in a medicinal context. Cannabis was listed in the United States Pharmacopeia from 1850 until 1942. The United States federal government does not currently recognize any legitimate medical use, although there are currently seven patients receiving cannabis for their various illnesses through the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program that was closed to new patients by President George H. W. Bush. Francis L. Young, an administrative law judge with the US Drug Enforcement Agency, in 1988, declared that “in its natural form, (cannabis) is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known.”
However, smoked cannabis is today not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) It has medicinal uses throughout recorded history of Homo sapiens. Specifically to the United States, it was used legally for medicinal use for many things including birth-giving, chronic pain, and some other known conditions before 1942, when its use was essentially outlawed from The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937. Currently in 12 states it is medically available to conditions it has been shown effective to treat through recent studies.
Visit - http://canna-cafe.com/medical-cannabis
Marijuana - Just say know! | It’s very easy to find the truth about marijuana. Just go to amazon.com and type in "marijuana", and you'll see a long list of books. Pick one and read it! Before we condemn anyone to an unspeakable and hideous prison experience, don't we owe it to them to be sure they really deserve to be in prison. Please consider the possibility, everyone reading this, that you may be wrong about marijuana.
What may not be in any of those books yet are two remarkable recent discoveries:
1. Marijuana's active ingredients, the cannabinoids, shrink tumors and promote the necrosis of cancerous tissue, without harming normal tissue. You can check this one out on the web with a Google search using the words [marijuana cancer], and also try [marijuana "shrink tumors"].
Visit - http://people.bakersfield.com/home/Blog/noelkettering
Medical Marijuana Forums |
Welcome to WeedTRACKER! The largest Medical Marijuana website online. We have everything the Medical Marijuana patient needs to be more educated about whats available at the California Co-Ops. We have the largest patient medicine reviews site with over 1000 products reviewed from over 350 Co-Ops from Los Angeles to Arcata.
WeedTRACKER.com is not a public website. Membership at WeedTRACKER is only available to qualified individuals. Some parts of the site are available for public read-only use, but the majority of the site is membership only. Individuals who wish to join WeedTRACKER.com must be legal Medical Marijuana Patients as defined by their states guidelines. Visit - http://www.weedtracker.com/forums/view.php?pg=welcome
Cannabis News from Canna Zine |
Cannabis use has a 4,000-year medical history, dating back to the early Chinese and Indian civilisations.
In the early 1840s, William O'Shaughnessy , of the East India Trading Company , described experiments giving cannabis tinctures to patients suffering rheumatism, tetanus, rabies, infantile convulsions, cholera and delirium tremens - conditions that traditional Indian medical practitioners were already treating with cannabis.
He reported great success in treating rheumatism, and also noted that cannabis was a great anti-vomiting agent.
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Cannabis Based Medicine (Sativex®) Relieves Spasms And Stiffness In People With Multiple Sclerosis – by Medical News Today |
Today, a leading neurology journal - European Journal of Neurology (EJN) reports a study1 which shows that Sativex, a cannabis based medicine, significantly reduces intractable spasms and stiffness (spasticity) in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Spasticity is one of the most common symptoms of MS, occurring in up to 84% of patients1. Spasticity can severely impact quality of life and is one of the most difficult symptoms of MS to treat1.
Visit - http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/64005.php
Marijuana as Medicine, by Consumer Reports - May 1997 |
Should marijuana be used as a medicine, as its advocates say? Or is it a dangerous drug of abuse that exposes users to brain damage and lung cancer?
Last fall, voters in California and Arizona approved laws allowing patients to smoke marijuana for medical purposes with a doctor's recommendation. Other states are considering similar moves. And the influential New England Journal of Medicine has editorialized in favor of extending this policy nationwide. Federal health and drug-enforcement officials have reacted strongly to these initiatives. "Seeming to legalize marijuana for anything would give young people the wrong impression," says Sheryl Massaro, a spokeswoman for the National Institute on Drug Abuse. "That doesn't even seem to enter the minds of a lot of people who are promoting it for medical use."
The debate over medical marijuana seems likely to continue for some time, caught up as it is in the larger question of how the nation should deal with recreational drug use and abuse. "It's a shame" that the debate is so polarized, says Harrison Pope, a Harvard University psychiatrist who studies marijuana. "Science should know more about this substance by now, considering how long it has been in use." While the debate continues, here is what is known about the health effects, both good and ill, of this controversial drug.
Visit - http://www.medmjscience.org/Pages/history/consumerreports.html
Common Sense for Drug Policy: Medical Marijuana Facts & News | ... in San Francisco to protest the DEA's raid on a local medical cannabis dispensary. According to ASA's news release: ... Medical Marijuana and College Campuses:
A Colorado student has been hassled by University administration even though he has adhered to state medical marijuana laws. According to The Denver Post September 20, 2008 article, ("Student Fights CU Over Hazy Marijuana Law")
"A University of Colorado at Boulder student who has a medical-marijuana card will be given his pot back by campus police Monday. CU officials relented when threatened with a lawsuit after campus police confiscated less than 2 ounces of pot from Edward Nicholson's dorm room, and officials threatened him with suspension.
Nicholson, 20, said he was holding the drug for his 23-year-old brother, a chronic-pain sufferer. State law allows doctor-recommended marijuana use for those 'suffering from debilitating medical conditions.' Caregivers of patients must carry state-issued medical-marijuana cards. Nicholson is the cardholder because he says pot is easier to buy in Boulder than in Aurora, where his family lives."
Visit - http://www.csdp.org/news/news/medmar.htm
Cannabis Has "Clear Medical Benefits" For HIV Patients, Study Says -- Smoked marijuana produces “substantial and comparable increases in food intake … with little evidence of discomfort and no impairment of cognitive performance”
June 28, 2007 - New York, NY, USA: by cannabisnews.com |
New York, NY: Inhaling cannabis significantly increases daily caloric intake and body weight in HIV-positive patients, is well tolerated, and does not impair subjects’ cognitive performance, according to clinical trial data to be published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS).
Investigators at Columbia University in New York assessed the efficacy of inhaled cannabis and oral THC (Marinol) in a group of ten HIV-positive patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All of the subjects participating in the study had prior experience using marijuana therapeutically and were taking at least two antiretroviral medications.
Visit - http://cannabisnews.com/news/23/thread23135.shtml
Accepted Medical Use: Clinical Research
By DrugScience.org | DrugScience.org is the homesite for the Cannabis Rescheduling Petition ... volunteers, smoked cannabis was effective in reducing Spasms and vomiting, ...
The 2002 Petition to Reschedule Cannabis (Marijuana): Results from clinical research demonstrate that both dronabinol and whole plant cannabis can offer a safe and effective treatment for the following illnesses: muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis, Tourette syndrome, chronic pain, Spasms and vomiting in HIV/AIDS and cancer chemotherapy, loss of appetite from cancer, hyperactivity of the bladder in patients with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, and dyskinesia caused by levodopa in Parkinson's disease.
During the 1970’s and 1980’s, several states conducted research programs comparing smoked marijuana to oral forms of THC. Musty and Rossi reviewed the data from research programs in 6 states. The results from only one of these research programs had been published in peer-reviewed journals before 1995 (Vinciguerra et al. 1988). In their 2001 review, Musty and Rossi wrote:
"Data were available on 748 patients who smoked marijuana prior to and/or after cancer chemotherapy and 345 patients who used the oral THC capsule.. . . Patients who smoked marijuana experienced 70-100% relief from Spasms and vomiting, while those who used the THC capsule experienced 76-88% relief. . . . On the basis of these studies, it appears that smoked marijuana can be a very successful treatment for Spasms and vomiting following cancer chemotherapy.. . .The development of smokeless inhalation devices could certainly reduce the potential harm from smoking marijuana.” (Musti & Rossi 2001)
Visit - http://www.drugscience.org/amu/amu_clinical_research.html
Medical Info – by Americans for Safe Access (ASA) |
Medical Cannabis Endorsements.
Safe access to cannabis for patients and research has been endorsed by a growing number of professional healthcare organizations, including the American Public Health Association, the American Nurses Association, and most recently, the Medical Student Section of the American Medical Association.
Medical Marijuana Endorsements and Statements of Support.
The following is a representative sample of the large number of government panels, medical organizations, health charities and individuals of note who have publicly stated their support for medical access to marijuana and/or their opposition to criminal penalties for medical marijuana users.
" Spasms, appetite loss, pain and anxiety are all afflictions of wasting, and all can be mitigated by marijuana."
- Institute of Medicine, "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," 1999
Visit - http://www.safeaccessnow.org/section.php?id=344
Medical Marijuana Uses, by Concept420 |
Below are just a small sample of the many uses of Medical Marijuana:
The drugs used to treat cancer are among the most powerful, and most toxic, chemicals used in medicine. They kill both cancer cells and healthy cells, producing extremely unpleasant and dangerous side effects. The most common is days or weeks of vomiting, retching, and Spasms after each treatment. The feeling of loss of control is highly depressing, and patients find it very difficult to eat anything, and lose weight and strength. People find it more and more difficult to sustain the will to live, and many chose to discontinue treatment, preferring death to treatment.
Cannabis can be used as an antiemetic, a drug which relieves Spasms and allows patients to eat and live normally. It is safer, cheaper and often more effective than standard synthetic antiemetics. Smoking cannabis is more effective than taking it orally (or its synthetic derivatives such as Marinol) as patients it difficult to keep anything down long enough for it to have an effect. Smoking cannabis produces an immediate effect, and patients find it easier to control the doseage. Additionally the euphoric properties act as an anti-depressant, and the hunger and enjoyment of food properties ('the munchies') make weight gain easy, and these increase the chances of recovery.
Visit - http://www.concept420.com/marijuana_medical_med_uses.htm
Medical cannabis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia |
Cannabis Indica (now referred to as Cannabis sativa subsp. indica), Fluid Extract, American Druggists Syndicate, pre-1937Medical cannabis refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada, Belgium, Austria, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain, Israel, Finland, and some U.S. states.
This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws.
There are many studies regarding the use of cannabis in a medicinal context.
Visit - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_cannabis
Medical Marijuana Information, from The Erowid Vault |
Marijuana has many possible medical uses. Positive effects are claimed for ailments such as cancer, AIDS, and glaucoma. AIDS can cause a loss of appetite known as "wasting syndrome", which can lead to drastic weight loss and weakness. Chemotherapy used in the treatment of cancer causes Spasms resulting in an inability to keep down food.
Marijuana's healing nature for these two illnesses is a result of its ability to increase a person's appetite as well as relieving Spasms, allowing a patient to regain weight. Marijuana reportedly helps glaucoma patients by reducing intraocular pressure that can cause damage to the eye.
Visit - http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_medical.shtml
Cannabis and cannabinoids : pharmacology toxicology and therapeutic potential (paperback) | livre cannabis and cannabinoids : pharmacology toxicology and therapeutic potential (paperback), homeopathie, phytotherapie, aromatherapie, mesotherapie, edition lavoisier.
Medical Use of Cannabis: Experience in California lli> Effects of Proposition 215 lli> Usage Surveys lli> Chapter 13. Anorexia and Spasms lli> Anorexia ...
Auteur(s) : GROTENHERMEN Franjo,
Date de parution: 07-2002,
Langue : ANGLAIS,
430p. 21x15.2 Paperback,
Etat : Disponible chez l'éditeur (délai de livraison : 17 jours),
This comprehensive volume presents state-of-the-art scientific research on the therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential features fair, equitable discussion of the benefits, drawbacks, and side effects of medical marijuana as a treatment for pain, Spasms, anorexia, Spasms, glaucoma, ischemia, spastic disorders, and migraine.
It examines all facets of the medical use of marijuana, including botany, history, biochemistry, pharmacology, clinical use, toxicology, and side effects. No other book available offers such a comprehensive, even-handed look at this deeply divisive subject.
Visit - http://www.lavoisier.fr/notice/frMVOSOARQO6FSLO.html
Muscle Spasm, Pain & Marijuana Therapy : Testimony from Federal and State Court Proceedings on Marijuana's Medical Use (Paperback)
by R. C. Randall (Editor) | Testimony and affidavits of patients and doctors from hearings before the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and state courts.
Personalized accounts of medical marijuana use provide an excellent source of information on this controversial topic.
Click > here < for more.
Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana, Report to the Director,
National Institutes of Health, by the Ad Hoc Group of Experts
| Appetite Stimulation/Spasms. What research has been done and what is known about the possible medical uses of marijuana? ...
Table of Contents
Clinical Pharmacology of Marijuana
Use of Marijuana in Neurological and Movement Disorders
Spasms and Vomiting
Question 4. What Special Issues Have to be Considered in Conducting
Clinical Trials of the Therapeutic Uses of Marijuana?
Appendix: The Effect of Controlled Substances Scheduling on Marijuana Research ...
Executive Summary: Over the past 18 months there has been wide-ranging public discussion on the potential medical uses of marijuana, particularly smoked marijuana. To contribute to the resolution of the debate, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a 2-day scientific meeting on February 19-20, 1997, to review the scientific data concerning the potential therapeutic uses for marijuana and the need for and feasibility of additional research.
Visit - http://www.nih.gov/news/medmarijuana/MedicalMarijuana.htm
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